Shaking Table Mineral Processing Guide

2019-08-02 18:04:35XinHai

Shaking table mineral processing is the process of separating the ore particles according to density by the combined action of mechanical shaking and water flushing. 

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The shaking table is the main equipment of the gravity separation plant. With a remarkable feature of high rich ore ratio, shaking table is commonly used to obtain the final concentrate, and at the same time separate the final tailings, which can effectively process the granular materials. The upper limit of the separation particle size is 3mm and the lower limit is below 1mm. If shaking table is used to separate cassiterite and the black tungsten ore, the smallest separation particle size can be 0.4mm.

shaking table

Working Principle of Shaking Table

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Shaking table mineral separation is achieved by the combination of the shape of the shaking table surface and the lateral flow of water. The groove on the shaking table surface is longitudinal, perpendicular to the direction of water flow, and a vortex is formed in the groove when the water flows laterally. The interaction of the vortex and the shaking table surface shaking makes the ore layer loose and layered according to density, the heavy minerals move to the lower layer, while the light minerals move to the upper layer, this process is called “separation and layering”. The upper layer of light ore particles is subjected to a larger momentum of water flow, while the lower layer of heavy ore particles is subject to less momentum, so the lateral movement speed of the light ore particles on the shaking table surface is greater than that of the heavy ore particles.

In the longitudinal direction, the differential movement of the shaking table surface promotes loose and layering of the ore, and also makes heavy ore particles move forward in the longitudinal direction at a large speed, and makes the light ore particles move forward at a small speed.

Differential movement is a kind of movement which initially advancing at a slow speed and gradually accelerating, suddenly retreating when the speed reaches the maximum, the speed is gradually reduced during the retreat, then advancing, and repeating the above process.

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How Does Shaking Table Work?

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The flushing water fed from the water tank covers the laterally inclined shaking table surface, and forms a uniform beveled thin layer of water on the surface. When the material (generally is product after classification, ore slurry with the concentration of 25%~30%) flows from the feed tank to the shaking table surface, the ore particles are loosened and layered by the water flow flushing and shaking table vibration in the groove of the shaking table. The upper layer of light mineral particles is subjected to a large impulse, and most of them move obliquely downward along the shaking table surface, and the discharge is called tailings. This side of the shaking table surface is called the tailings end. The heavy mineral particles located at the bottom of the shaking table are longitudinally moved by the differential motion of the shaking table surface, and discharge from the opposite side of the transmission end. This discharge is call concentrate, and this position of shaking table surface is called the concentrate end. The different densities and particle sizes of the ore particles are subjected to different force in the lateral and longitudinal directions on the shaking table surface, the final direction of movement is different, so the ore particles can be separated as fan-shape and become several products with different weight.

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What is the Basic Structure of Shaking Table?

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The shaking table is a widely used mineral separation equipment. Shaking table's basic structure is divided into three main parts: the bed surface, the bed head and the frame.

Bed Surface of Shaking Table

The bed surface of shaking table can be made of wood, fiberglass, metal (such as aluminum, cast iron) and other materials. Common shapes of shaking table include rectangles, trapezoids, and diamonds. A plurality of parallel bed strips (also called strips) are engraved on the surface of the bed in the longitudinal direction or engraved with grooves, and the bed strips are lowered from the transmission end to the opposite side and are pinched off on a diagonal line. The bed surface of shaking table is supported or lifted by the frame. The bed surface of shaking table is inclined, inclined from the feeding end to the opposite side in the lateral direction of 1.5°~5°, so that the water flow fed from the ore feeding tank and the flushing tank forms a thin layer of inclined water flow on the bed surface. There is a feeding tank on the upper right side of the bed surface of shaking table, the length is about 1/4~1/3 of the total length of the bed surface of the shaking table; there are many small holes in the side of the feeding tank, so that the slurry is evenly distributed on the bed surface of shaking table. Connected to the mineral tank is a flushing tank, which accounts for 2/3~3/4 of the total length of the bed surface of shaking table. There are also many small holes in the water tank side, so that the flushing water can be evenly fed along the longitudinal direction of the bed surface of shaking table. A plurality of flaps are also mounted in the tank to regulate the distribution of water along the length of the bed of shaking table.

Bed Head of Shaking Table (Transmission Mechanism)

The bed head of shaking table is driven by the motor, and the bed surface is connected by a tie rod to make the bed surface reciprocate asymmetrically in the longitudinal direction. When shaking table bed is moving forward, the speed is slow to fast and then stops quickly; when shaking table bed going backwards, the speed increases rapidly from zero to the maximum, and then slowly decreases to zero. The bed surface of shaking table produces longitudinal differential motion, so that the mineral particles on the bed surface can be transported in single direction. The operation to the concentrate is forward transport, and vice versa.

Rack or suspension mechanism of Shaking Table

The support of the shaking table bed surface is seated and suspended. The seat type is that the bed surface is directly coupled with the bracket, and a slope adjusting device is arranged on the bracket to adjust the lateral slope of the bed surface. The hanging type is to hang the bed surface on a shelf with a wire rope, and the bed surface is suspended in the air. Adjust the slope to adjust by adjusting the tightness of the wire rope.

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Common Types of Shaking Table

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According to the mechanical structure, shaking table can be divided into 6S shaking table, Yunxi type shaking table, spring shaking table, suspended multi-deck shaking table and flotation shaking table.

6S Shaking Table

6S shaking table has a wide stroke adjustment range and a strong loose force, which is suitable for separating materials of 0.5-2mm. Its stroke is easy to adjust and keeps running smoothly when the slope is adjusted.

Yunxi Type Shaking Table

The asymmetry of Yunxi type shaking table bedside is large,and has a wide range of differential adjustment to meet different feeding particle size and separation requirements. The bed head mechanism runs reliably, and there are few parts that are easy to wear and do not leak oil. The disadvantage is that the spring is installed below the bed surface, which is inconvenient for maintenance and adjustment of stroke, and the adjustable range of lateral slope is small (0°-5°).

Spring Shaking Table

The bed surface support method and the slope adjustment method of the spring shaking table are the same as those of the Yunxi type shaking table. The bed strip of the bed surface of the spring shaking table is usually formed by grooving method, and the section of the groove is triangular. The positive and negative movements of the spring shaking table have a large difference in acceleration, which can effectively push the fine particles to move forward along the bed surface, so it is suitable for processing fine-grained materials. The disadvantage is that the stroke will vary with the amount of feed. When the load is too large, the bed will automatically stop moving, and the processing capacity per hour is very low, usually below 100kg.

Suspended Multi-deck Shaking Table

Suspended multi-deck shaking table has a small footprint, large production capacity and low energy consumption. The disadvantage of this shaking table is that it is inconvenient to observe the zoning of the materials on the bed surface, and the product access is not clear. The recovery of -30um wolframite or cassiterite can be up to 50%. The biggest advantage of the spring shaking table is that the price is low, and the bed structure is simple and easy to maintain.

Flotation Shaking Table

Flotation shaking table is mainly used for separating sand ore with coarse particle size, containing tin and non-ferrous sulfide minerals, or tungsten and tin concentrate with polymetallic sulfide minerals, or scheelite - wolframite - cassiterite mixed concentrate, etc. The particle size of ore is usually 0.2-3mm, up to 6mm in some cases.

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How to Install and Operate Shaking table

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Installation and Adjustment of Shaking Table

1. Quality inspection before installation: The user should test the shaking table before installation on whether the parts of the bed meet the requirements of the drawings, the parts are complete, and the appearance is intact.

2. The side plate should be prevented from compression deformation and collision with bed surface of shaking table during hammock is used.

3. Install the connector and four connecting blocks before hoisting the bed surface to adjust the height and exact position. The bed surface installation center is consistent with the center of connector in the machine head.

4. After the installation and connection are correct, the shaking table needs to run empty for 1-2 hours. Check whether the bed surface is running smoothly, whether the connection part is loose and shaking, or whether the slide is well lubricated with no abnormal noise, and whether the lateral slope adjustment is flexible and stable.

5. After the bed surface is installed, the holes of each connecting screw should be aligned, with moderate tightness, and the gap between the support and the connecting part should not be too large so as not to cause noise and wear.

6. If there is no problem in empty running or related operation problems are solved, shaking table can start working with mineral load. According to the ore transportation and zoning on the bed surface, a series of operation specifications can be adjusted including the feeding amount, the ore concentration, the stroke length and stroke frequency system, the cross slope and the flushing water volume.

Operation Point of Shaking Table

1. Appropriate stroke length and stroke frequency. The appropriate values for stroke length and stroke frequency are mainly related to the particle size of the selected material, the load of shaking table and the ore density.

2. Suitable cross fall of the bed surface.

3, Appropriate amount of flushing water.

4. Appropriate and uniform ore feeding.

5. Suitable feeding concentration.

6. Preparation of materials before they are selected.

7. The zoning of the material on the bed surface and the interception of the product.

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