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Caving mining method is a mining method that realizes ground pressure management by caving surrounding rock. That is, with the progress of the stoping work, fill the goaf with forced or natural caving surrounding rock to realize ground pressure management. This article will introduce the classification and characteristics of caving mining method.
Caving mining method can be divided into single layer caving mining method, slicing and caving mining method, pillar sublevel mining caving method, sublevel caving mining method and block caving mining method.
It is mainly used to mine gently inclined ore beds with unstable roof rocks and generally less than 3m in thickness. The interstage seams are divided into ore blocks, and the block stoping work is advanced along the strike according to the full thickness of the ore body. When the stope face is advanced for a certain distance, in addition to retaining the space required for stoping work, the pillar is recovered systematically and the roof of the goaf is caved down. Fill the goaf with rock caved to control the roof pressure. According to the form of working face, it can be divided into longwall caving method, shortwall caving method and approach caving method.
In this method, the stoping is carried out in layers from top to bottom. After each layered ore is mined, the caving rock covered above moves down to fill the goaf. Layered stoping is carried out under artificial roof protection. The artificial roof separates the ore from the caving rocks, thereby reducing ore loss and dilution rate.
This method is also called the sublevel caving method with bottom structure. It can be divided into horizontal deep hole sublevel caving method and vertical deep hole sublevel caving method.
The main features are:
The stage is divided into several sections and the ore is mined from top to bottom.
Ore drawing, transportation and secondary crushing are carried out in the special roadway dug in the bottom pillar. The bottom pillar will be mined with the next section.
The surrounding rock caved naturally or forcibly during the stoping process. And ore drawing is carried out under caved overburden.
In this method, there is no bottom structure for ore drawing. Segmented rock drilling, ore caving and ore drawing are carried out in the stoping roadway. Sublevel caving method is mainly used in the mining of iron ore deposits, most of which are newly built mines. At each stage, the surrounding rock should be artificially caved to form overburden rock.
This mining method has the advantages of high strength, high efficiency, low cost, simple process, high mechanization degree, and safe production. In this mining method, not only the top pillars and the inter-pillars of the mining area are removed, but also the bottom pillars with complex structure is removed, which simplifies the mining area structure.
It caves ore at the full height of the stage using drilling and blasting or gravity, and drawing ore from through the bottom structure of the ore block under the caved overburden. The stope height is stage full height. Stage forced caving method can be divided into stage forced caving method with compensation space and stage forced caving method with continuous stoping.
(1) Caving mining method no longer divides the ore block into ore rooms and pillars, but takes the whole ore block as a stoping unit, and carries out continuous single-step stoping according to a certain sequence.
(2) In the stoping process, the surrounding rocks are naturally or forcibly caved, and the ore is drawn in direct contact with the overlying rock. Therefore, it is very necessary to manage ore drawing scientifically.
(3) Caving mining method is mining from top to bottom in one stage, which is different from open stope mining method.
The above are the classifications and characteristics of caving mining method. Caving mining method can realize single step continuous stoping and eliminate the disadvantages of poor safety condition, large loss and dilution in stoping pillar. But the first prerequisite is that the surface is allowed to fall. Because the ore drawing is carried out under the overburden rock, the overall loss and dilution rate are high. Therefore, the caving mining method is generally suitable for the mining of low-value ore bodies or low-grade ore bodies.
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